Parma is a small shield ranging in size from 12 inches to approximately 33 inches.
Being relatively light, the Parma is held by a handle attached to the inner face of the shield vertically. This allowed the warrior to hold a second weapon (spear or axe) in reserve while the weapon hand is otherwise engaged. To allow space for the hand, a circle is cut behind the handheld. This opening is then covered by a boss (a bowl-like hand cover) which can be used (along with the shield’s edge as an offensive weapon.
The Parma Thrace was a dinner plate sized shield similar to the renaissance buckler. It was named after the Thracian style of fighting with a small shield and curved sword.
The Parma. A 22-33cm round shield usually made of 1-2 centimeters of wood with a cloth, leather or bronze covering.
The Parma Murmillo was a small rectangular shield that curved around the body. 22-33 cm in height. The Murmillo was a heavily armed gladiator.